Choosing a suit cloth is, in some ways, harder than any other area of clothing. Because they all look so similar. 

If we leave aside the more aesthetic – and subjective areas – of colour and pattern, we are left with dozens of similar-looking suitings differentiated only by technical points of composition and construction.

Some of these points, however, are pretty important; others less so. In this post we will attempt to explain the difference, and therefore highlight which ones you should care about.

Below: Finished worsted suit from Camps de Luca, Paris

Camps de Luca bespoke suit


Let’s kick off with some definitions. Most suits are made from worsted wool. (We’ll cover flannels and woollen suitings in a separate post.) ‘Worsted’ refers to the yarn the cloth is woven from – longer fibres are used, and spun into a finer yarn.

This finer, sleeker, and more uniform yarn usually produces finer, sleeker cloth – which is why suits look so much sleeker than other woollen products.

But it can also be woven into fairly thick, heavy cloth, and finished to look woollier and fuzzier. It depends on what look and feel the weaver is going for.

One of the central aspects of suiting is the fineness of this wool fibre. It is measured in microns, and is often referred to by a ‘super’ numbers, eg Super 120s or Super 150s.

This is an important area, but also a potentially misleading one. We will deal with it in more detail in a separate post (on ‘superfines’).

Below: A fitting at Chittleborough & Morgan in a particularly thick and heavy worsted suit



A second key attribute of worsted cloth is its weight. This will be clearly marked and is measured in either ounces or grams.

Generally, a heavier cloth hangs better and lasts longer, but lightweight cloths are often seen as more luxurious and cooler in warmer climates.

Whether they are more luxurious is of course subjective, and changes over time. Coolness is more objective, and it’s fair to say that men can generally wear heavier cloths than they think.

Weight is driven by two things: the thickness of the yarn and the ‘construction’ of the cloth it is woven into.

Construction itself is a broad term and includes:

  • how closely the yarn is set together on the loom;
  • the pattern of the weaving;
  • and how many warp and weft yarns are woven around each other.

Whitcomb Shaftesbury side adjustor

Above: the twill of my Whitcomb & Shaftesbury navy suit

So for example, a twill will always be heavier than a plain weave in the same yarn, just because a twill is denser and therefore heavier.

The construction can also be important in how well the cloth hangs and retains its shape. A denser weave, like a twill, usually performs better in this respect, and is therefore a good option for suits or trousers. Sports-jacket materials tend to be softer and looser.

Most weaves are more about the pattern of the cloth than its weight and feel. But those can make a functional difference include gabardine (a twill denser in the warp), barathea (a dense, complicated weave) and satin (which creates the shiny look we associate with the term).

There will be another, later post in this series illustrating these weaves – largely in order to understand the aesthetic differences between them.

Below: A herringbone weave on my Caraceni jacket (a woollen though, rather than a worsted)

Caraceni bespoke cashmere jacket buttons

Two by what?

Another construction area that can cause confusion is phrases such as ‘2-and-2’ or ‘2-by-2’.

Generally a 2-and-2 weave means that the cloth is woven evenly, face and back, with two threads moving up and down on both sides.

The alternative is a 2-and-1 twill, with two threads on the face for every one on the back.

But there is also a ‘2-by-1′, which has a two-ply yarn in the warp (running along the cloth) and a single-ply yarn in the weft (running across it).

The weave is even in this case, but the variation is in the yarn itself. This construction is lightweight, but can also be rather fragile.

The vast majority of cloths are 2-and-2, although you do get heavier and more traditional cloths in a 3-and-3. Either way, this is towards the more technical and end of cloth attributes.

Cifonelli navy suit waistcoat

Below: A merino-wool waistcoat from my Cifonelli navy suit


More important is any variation in the fibre that goes into the yarn.

Some worsteds, for example, include a small amount of cashmere in them, in order to feel softer (often trying to replicate the feel of superfines).

There may be, say, 10% cashmere fibre spun in with 90% wool. At these proportions, the cloth is a little softer but still hangs and performs well. If the amount of cashmere were to be increased, however, it would start to make the cloth spongier and baggy – which is why 100% cashmere is rarely used for suits or trousers.

Most other worsted yarns are made with merino wool, though even here there are variations. Escorial, for example, is a merino that comes from a single flock in Tasmania and is particularly fine and springy.

(Other suiting fibres such as mohair, also often mixed with wool, will be dealt with in a separate post.)


Above: A brown worsted flannel trouser from PA Crowe


Somewhere down the bottom of the list in terms of importance, is finishing.

The finishing of cloth – brushing, milling and so on – can vary a lot with woollens and other cloths. But it is fairly consistent with worsteds: they all tend to have a very clean, close finish to give them their sleek, smart appearance.

The exception is worsted flannels, which are milled to try and replicate the feeling of flannel, just in a lighter weight. And there are ‘crushed’ or semi-milled worsteds, though these are relatively rare.

Sartoria Dalcuore Naples bespoke suit

Above: Fitting for high-twist brown suit with Dalcuore

Overall, colour and pattern are always going to be the most important things in the selection of a suiting.

But it’s worth understanding fineness and its effects, composition of different fibres, and the various things that go into determining weight.

Top image: Jamie Ferguson. All other images, Luke Carby

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Hi Simon,

I’ve a question that I hope you might help me with. I usually wear jackets, and prefer more matte, textured cloths. A big admirer of the anglo-italian aesthestic!

I’m looking to get a navy suit to be worn for a formal event next summer – and hopefully fill the ever shrinking niche of a proper suit for the forseeable future. My existing and older suits have all been quite shiny, and I’ve considering if there are any more matte suiting fabrics. Something that is still navy, formal, and suitable year-around use, so not exactly a flannel or a tweed.

Do you have any ideas of what I should look for, a particular material, weave etc, or perhaps even a specific cloth recommendation?

Or do you have any reflections regarding what I’m looking for, perhaps you find it unsuitable? I didn’t find much regarding shine in the guide above.

All the best


Thanks Simon, it does make perfect sense!

I was hoping to be able to do some online research before going to my MTM ‘tailor’, but as you say it will likely be easier on location, checking the different books.

I was struck by your navy suit from W&S, it looked to be a bit more matte, but perhaps too warm wearing for summer. Maybe I’m able to find lighter variants. I’ll browse around online a bit, and at least now I know what to ask for when I’m with the books!

Thanks again


Very interesting, but what practical use is it when choosing a cloth in a tailors shop?


I have a question about “british” versus “italian” worsteds. I have the experience that cloth from Italy often is quite soft and even “oily” when I feel it and that those from Britain is more “dry” a little bit harder.

I compared two different plain worsteds. One was a Super120 Loro Piana Soft Touch and the other was a Super130 suit cloth from Huddersfield Co. They had the same weight but the touch was very different.

Do you have the same experience? My feeling is that the italian cloth is nicer but more sensitive.

Matt S

Some questions about terminology: Does two-and-two only refer to an even twill? And can all two-and-two even twill worsteds be called serge? Can you describe a 2×2 hopsack as “two-and-two”, or is that only for serge? Also, gabardines are often woven 2×2, but aren’t even because there are more yarns in the warp than in the weft and are finished differently.


Two points .
Firstly regarding these articles.
These are some of the most ‘technical’ blogs you’ve written and certainly the most challenging to read.
I think a ‘idiot proof’ simpler explanation is needed ( certainly for this idiot !)
For those of us used to seeing a finished product to try and understand yarns , 2 at the front 1 at back is very difficult to quickly fathom.
Regardless of these articles are most welcome .

Secondly , how does one avoid the cloth on navy suits becoming shiny ?


+1 on how to stop navy worsteds going shiny. Observed this on two business suits last week and wondering if I now need to replace (shame as only a few years old) and if so what to replace with!

Tim Beasley

The best advice is to hardly ever dry clean the jackets & purchase extra trousers with each suit to prevent excessive wear from the pressing process.


What are the advantages of merino?


I find it hard to understand how Scabal’ s 290g Cortina cloth listed below can be considered appropriate for the colder months.At just over 10oz I would have thought it would be better suited to a warm spring or summer’s day.The author also describes the cloth as “courageous”. Words fail me.

Fleece Stalker

Paul – I beleive ‘courageous’ to be an autocorrect fail of ‘gorgeous’ as I have seen it before in a similar context, strangely enough a handspinning tool


Hi Simon,

Can I ask your advice about a white dinner jacket. I am thinking of having one made for use in the summer. I was planning on a single-breasted peak lapel with one button. What advice would you have about cloth type and weight? Secondly, in terms of the lapels, would you have the same as the jacket, or use a moiré silk or cream grosgrain?

Many thanks.


Thanks Simon,

What weight/cloth would you suggest? I browsed cloth today and narrowed it down to a either a 10/11oz cream barathea or a 10oz cream twill. Which would you suggest, or should I go heavier? It will mainly be used in warmer climates.


Hi Simon,
Thanks for this very technical introduction. I think we would need time to understand all the intricacies!
For now, I would like to know what you think of blend cashmere and cotton used as knitwear. Is such a fabric hard-wearing? And is it suitable for Winter or rather for Spring and Summer?
And what about the same blend fabric mostly used for Summer jackets?


I hope you have planed to devote a piece exclusively focused on blend fabrics. Which are the best for suiting and which for jackets ? Such an Insight would be very useful to many of us!


Hi Simon,
@Rabster I hope you’re not cheating and ironing your suit yourself, because that’ll do it. If you must, place a piece of cloth between the iron and your suit to stop the ‘shining’ effect.

Simon, I’d like to know how the principal weaves that you find in suiting cloth books (twills, hopsack, pick and pick, plains, birdseye & nailhead) affect drape and performance.
cheers Pliny

Jesus Gonzalez M.D.

Hi Simon
Living in Miami where it is very hot and humid what weight of fabric or weave would you suggest for a suit keeping in mind that if you are buying bespoke you would want something that hangs well and is durable. Also keep in mind that most of the time while wearing a suit will be spent in air conditioning.


I have wide legs which wear out trousers very quickly (mostly in the inner part of the leg). I have asked my tailor ” and he suggested to use dry fabrics such as grisaille. Would you agree ?

Nick Inkster

Hi Simon

As thoughts should soon be turning to commissions for the spring, it may be useful for some of your readers if you were to base your next piece in this series on cloths for warmer weather.


Sorry Simon as a long term reader I have a few issues with these ‘guides’. They just aren’t very good for the following reasons; by aligning yourself with Scabal there is no proper reference to what the market actually provides (UK has some of the world’s best mills yet no real examples) and it is therefore comprimised and rather academic. Or at least it would be had you provided some reasonable illustrations of weave patterns (the internet is full of them). The ‘2 by what’ section would by far the better if the technical passages were thus illustrated. The same could be said for finishing and weight. For a guide it all seems a bit light and piecemeal? It goes entirely against the grain of Permanent Style wherein real world interaction places it above all others.

Lawrence Sanbourne

Hello again! I will be in London for two weeks in early December and again in mid January. Do you think that is enough time to do a good quality MTM suit for my first foray into custom(ish) suiting? I just need a simple black two-button that fits me beautifully, but I am hoping to spend around 1500 gbp. Where would you suggest for good quality fitting? Thanks for the help!



Hello Simon,

I’m looking to purchase my first bespoke suit and I am currently deciding between H&S Target / Perennial or Dormueil Iconik / Amadeus 365.

Do you have much experience with these fabrics? I am just after a conservative charcoal to wear in the office and to meetings. I only plan on wearing this suit once a week.



Thanks Simon.

So are you saying there’s not much point in paying a few hundred dollars extra to upgrade from a Dugdale Bros to Dormueil/H&S? The fabrics I’m looking at are literally the exact same to my eye (same colour, twill weave, & weight).

I am in Australia and it can get quite hot here during the Summer periods. Most MTM operators here mainly offer 260-280 grams (9-10oz). I noticed in several of your posts you have stated 11oz or 13oz is preferable – and you mentioned that it drapes better and is more durable for more frequent use (and 8+ hour work days).

I’m just worried about getting too hot – especially walking around during Spring even…



Awesome thanks Simon!


Hi Simon, great series and a related question on cloth. Am also considering the trade off between the benefits of a heavier suit weight and regular wearability. I tend to travel between New York and Toronto for work and wondering if you would consider stepping up to 13oz wearable year round or, given our summer heat, more of a three season weight? Thanks.


Hi Simon. Thanks for all the great articles. I will be traveling to London at the end of the month to place an order for two bespoke suits (as I have a need for a grey and a navy suit) It will be my first time to go bespoke so I am looking forward to the experience. A slight concern I have is from reading comments that the first suit is never done quite perfectly, even with an expert tailor. The second suit in a following order turns out better. As I will be commissioning two suits at the same time, I don’t want to make a big purchase like this and end up with two suits that don’t fit quite right. As I don’t live in London, I don’t have the time to make so many trips there back and forth to do separate orders. That is why I will commission two during this first trip. Would you advise against this for a first time order?


Picking up the remarks on blue material and the shining issue. This isn’t just a problem for the customer. It’s also a problem for the tailor who worked the cloth. Generally trousers are the worst affected . The best advice I can can offer is buy two pairs of trousers and rotate IE: wear and rest them religiously. Material which has an additional shade of blue in the weave such as a Birdseye shine less. Don’t be too optimistic about wearing trousers too tight material that has been stretched shines much more rapidly


Mr Crompton, I will attend a Caledonian Ball in my country next October. By that time it will be spring, maybe a cold one, perhaps like last year. I wonder which option would be more formal, if a DB, two-piece, charcoal pinstripe suit or a single breasted, three-piece, navy suit, being this cloth solid navy blue but with a very little herringbone texture (it has no white colour, but navy blue only). Could you please suggest which one would be appropriate? Thank you very much, I follow you from Montevideo, Uruguay.


Hi Simon,
I have been pondering where to post this question, I finally chose the “worsted suitings” guide. The time has come to replace my faithful gun club jacket after +25 years of service. Your Ciardi jacket is not far from what I am aiming at. Among the cloths within my reach, the Holland Sherry Peacock 826034 HS 1682 bunch best fits the bill from colour / design point of view. However I am somewhat puzzled by the cloth description. It reads “100% worsted wool”. I am going for something tweed-like, so wollen, fuzzy. I believe I have read you that worsted is a finish, often referred as “hard”, and sleek. However the guide says it can be made sleek or otherwise “woolen, fuzzy”, depending on what the manufacturer is seeking. These would be pretty much opposite alternatives that leave me nonplussed. Would you have some insight on what I could expect from that cloth?

Thank you,

Alex N.

Dear Simon,
How would you characterize softness? I do not mean it as in the fineness that comes from a super 170s, etc. I was looking at a Lesser 13 oz, a Fox 11o.z and Dugdale 12.oz worsted twills and they had a different stiffness. Fox’s cloths seem quite stiff (also based on flannels vs others I have touched), whereas the Dugdale one was quite a bit softer (not necessarily finer). I believe this will mostly show in the drape of the garment and how it wears. Would you classify it based on density of cloth? However, the Fox was most see-through despite being the stiffest, so perhaps wasn’t that densely woven? I am a bit confused and would be interested to hear your opinion in general about the topic.


But if a 100% cashmere is worsted, is that better than pure 100% cashmere? I can’t seem to understand the distinction although it seems that the distinction does exist.

Peter Z

Dear Simon,
Do you have any suggestions regarding heavier worsted cloth in the range of 15-16oz?
Ever since Lesser got rid of their 160z book which really had some very fine fabrics I have no idea
where to look for heavier suiting. Any recommendations would be helpful.
P.S. I am not looking for flannel.
Peter Z


For Peter Z, I have found Pederson and Becker’s P&B Universal bunch to have many heaver weight worsted cloths, though 15 oz rather than 16 oz.

Jon M

Hi Simon, quick question. I’m having a suit made and am coming in as someone who generally wore 8-9oz suiting as that’s whats offered mostly off the peg and MTM. Is there a difference in how an 11oz vs 13oz cloth wears in terms of warmth/durability etc? Going for a navy herringbone H&S and really just quibbling over the weight choice. Cheers



For what it is worth for future readers, I went from inexpensive off-the-rack suits which were probably in the 6-8 oz range, to a 13 oz double-breasted bespoke suit, and I never noticed any issue with warmth. All I noticed was superior drape and wrinkle-resistance.

I’m considering pushing to 15 oz for my next suit given I’ve found no drawback to the heavier cloth.


Hi Simon,

Happy festive season.
Do you happen to know cloth merchants were regular guy could enquire and buy small amount of cloth for custom project with local tailor?


Il Pennacchio

Hi Thomas,

Simon is correct for the most part. But in Italy some drapperie are willing to sell cloth directly to retail customers, as does Tip Top Fabrics in Brooklyn.


Arguably more mills than merchants, but Fox Brothers will sell directly to clients. Ditto Josuha Ellis, though they don’t tend to have worsteds.

Charlie B

Simon – thanks for the excellent article.

I’m trying to get hold of a special fabric, of the type that could be found in the 1920s or 30s. My suit was made in 1932, and belonged to my grandfather. It is truly amazing, and I hope to wear it for the rest of my life. This seems a little unfair on my children however, and I would like to be able to have similar suits made for them. I have found a number of tailors who would be delighted to copy the suit design, but none of them have been able to source a fabric that even comes close to the feel/look/weight of this older weave. Furthermore, I have been told by a number of people that the industry simply lacks the expertise to be able to make this sort of cloth, and that I would be better off finding someone who has hoarded the cloth for a century. However I don’t buy this! Surely someone today is in the business of recreating the exceptional fabric of the late industrial period.

Do you know any weavers who you think would be up to the challenge?

Many thanks,

Yours aye,



Dear Simon,

Would you say there are cloths which favour different construction styles? For example if a worsted cloth is more tightly woven and a bit stuffer would it d’avoir being done by a more structured tailor vs let’s say a flannel which would suit a soft draped cut coat? Or even between worsteds, some have a softer handle than others even if in the same weight and weave. Are they more suitable for certain makers than others?

( I am not talking heavy vs light)


Great articles Simon, thanks! A related question: I live in Stockholm and will comission a navy suit for use all the year round. What weight would you recommend? Most likely, I will go for a plain weave. Thanks!


Simon, I live in Manhattan (NYC). For Fall, winter and spring you think about Holland & Sherry 420 grams?


Hi Simon, could I ask whether you think the cloth in the photo attached below looks worsted wool and dark grey to you? Personally, it’s pretty difficult to identify between worsted merino wool and flannels.

Many thanks,

Worsted .jpeg

Thanks, Simon.
I was wondering whether you know any nice, fairly heavy-weighted Italian worsted wool cloths? I would be grateful if you could suggest some for me as I am having a very difficult time choosing with worsted material…


It would have been a bit easier for me if I had a choice for an English mill, but unfortunately, due to the limited timeframe, my tailor won’t be able to complete the work for my desired date if I choose an English mill, which is limiting my choices suddenly as I preferred English mill for a worsted.

Some Italian worsted I have seen were lighter in weight than what I was looking for, although they had various options for super numbers.


Many thanks, Simon


Hi Simon, I am looking for a mid-grey herringbone cloth for a worsted suit commission with a weight of around 11-13oz. I have noticed the English bunch, such as Smith’s or Lessers, don’t offer many high super numbers, such as the 120s. Would you have anything you could think of for a nice mid-grey herringbone, regardless of the price?

Many thanks,


Okay, thanks, Simon.

I have been reading your article intensively for a year now. Recently, I have received a decent amount of compliments from several tailors in London for understanding processes and cloths with several terminologies. I am certain that these were due to your great articles and thoughtful responses to your readers. I would like to you say thank you, and I appreciate your great passion for your job and readers.


Hi Simon,
do you think this cloth would make a good lined suit?


Is there a specific type of garment brush that is best for worsted wool?


Hi Simon, if you were to commission your first suit and had a choice between mid-grey herringbone and pick-and-pick, which one would you go for and why?

Many thanks,


Both cloths are 13oz worsted wool from the H Lesser bunch and I am aiming to wear it mostly for very smart occasions (weddings and formal business settings). I have never commissioned a suit in worsted before and would like to use this chance to make it an all-rounder as I don’t think I would commission another one in the near future.

I am aware (from reading your other articles) that the mid-grey herringbone would work well, but would you say that it would not be ideal for a formal business setting, in which case pick-and-pick may be a better choice, as it would still be okay for a wedding and also suitable for a formal business setting? Or would you say that mid-grey herringbone would be formal enough for business? So basically, which cloth of the two would you likely choose if you had to?


Great, thank you, Simon. I personally also prefer the herringbone but was just concerned if I am making the right choice.

Sorry, if I may ask for another advice on this, I will be commissioning the suit in three-piece and will be wearing the waistcoat mainly for the wedding as the details of the suit would be quite simple- notched lapels, two buttons, two straight flap pockets. I think a waistcoat with lapels looks good but am not sure whether I should go for it as I am concerned that it would make the general outfit busy and the v-zone narrower. Would you say this is something I should certainly be concerned about?


Hi Simon. Based on your experience what would be the current heavyweight darker navy cloth you recommend for workhorse suit? Many thanks. Henry


Hi Simon,

I wasn’t quite sure if I should post here or under the newer (and very helpful) article on 1000 GBP suits. But it is essentially about cloth weight so here we go:

I am looking at this suit – the cloth weight is about 280 grams. Is that a good weight for a suit worn basically only indoors year round in Continental Europe? And regarding durability – would you prefer a twill over the (basket?) weave?

Thank you and Mansih for the article on 1000 GBP suits – Cavour, now offering long sizes, opens up new possibilities.



That was a fast response – thank you! I have the impression that it is rather difficult to find a cloth in the range you named (that is not flannel) in RTW suits, but now I got a number and will look out for something. Thanks again.